The maps designate countries considered to be affected by a disease. Areas within countries may or may not be affected by a specific disease. Consult with a Travel Healthcare Provider or www.cdc.gov/travel about your specific itinerary prior to travel. Reporting activity data are provided by Sitata and derived from numerous sources, including official surveillance data and news reports. Reporting activity does not reflect current risk of infection with a disease. Not all areas report cases of disease; therefore, the absence of activity on the map does not indicate that a disease is not present. The relationship between the intensity of reporting activity and actual disease transmission is unknown and does not indicate a difference in risk. Maps do not reflect differential distribution of diseases within a country.
Spread By Food and Water
What Is It?
Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by a virus. Hepatitis A virus is widespread and can be found in multiple regions of the world, including Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Symptoms of hepatitis A vary and depend on the age of the person infected. Children under age six may have mild disease or not have any symptoms at all. Older children and adults may have mild to severe symptoms, and recovery may be slow.
Contaminated food and water are common ways that hepatitis A is spread. Hepatitis A is spread by human waste containing the virus. Poor sanitary conditions, as well as poor personal hygiene, may lead to the spread of hepatitis A.
Japanese encephalitis is caused by a virus that is spread by mosquitos. The Japanese encephalitis virus may be found in areas of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region. Although most Japanese encephalitis infections are mild (fever and headache) or have no symptoms, a small proportion develop clinical disease.
Japanese encephalitis is spread by mosquitos. The mosquitos that spread Japanese encephalitis are found in rural and suburban settings, are active at night, and bite people both indoors and outdoors. For most travelers, the likelihood of acquiring Japanese encephalitis is extremely low.
Lots of us are “dog” people and can’t resist petting an adorable pup during our travels. But if you don’t know it, don’t pet it! Rabies is spread by saliva, so even a friendly lick can be dangerous. Take a picture of it instead.
There’s nothing like the taste of a fresh catch, but certain fish (like red snapper, sea bass, and sturgeon) found in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific and Indian Oceans have a higher risk of toxins that can cause Ciguatera (sig-wah-TARE-ah), a type of food poisoning. Consider catch and release when fishing in those areas!
Mosquitos can spread serious, even fatal infectious diseases. To lower your risk of catching one of these diseases, remember to use mosquito repellent on bare skin, and wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts, socks, and shoes. And, to help turn off mosquitos, turn on the air conditioning.
Fruity drinks may hit the spot when you’re at a tropical location but go for the canned or bottled kind. Local tap or well water (or ice made from either), along with fruit washed with the same local water, can put you at risk for traveler’s diarrhea and other diseases.
Want more travel health tips?
We have a lot more helpful tips to help you stay healthier when you travel like:
How to choose a safer meal
What to know about spices when you travel
Which gets applied first: sunscreen or mosquito repellent
This Site Does Not Provide Medical Advice. The content is intended for informational purposes only and should not be used to replace a discussion with a healthcare or travel health professional. Always seek the advice of your doctor with any questions you may have about your health. The content on this site has been created for U.S. residents only.
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