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AREAS AFFECTED: endemic key for areas affected

Areas of heightened disease reporting: LO Areas of heightened disease reporting heat key HI

Belize

Capital: Belmopan

Population: 400,000

Local Infectious Diseases

Data Source For Areas Affected

The maps designate countries considered to be affected by a disease. Areas within countries may or may not be affected by a specific disease. Consult with a Travel Healthcare Provider or www.cdc.gov/travel about your specific itinerary prior to travel. Reporting activity data are provided by Sitata and derived from numerous sources, including official surveillance data and news reports. Reporting activity does not reflect current risk of infection with a disease. Not all areas report cases of disease; therefore, the absence of activity on the map does not indicate that a disease is not present. The relationship between the intensity of reporting activity and actual disease transmission is unknown and does not indicate a difference in risk. Maps do not reflect differential distribution of diseases within a country.

Chikungunya

Spread By Mosquitos Spread By Mosquitos

What Is It?

Chikungunya is an arthritic disease, commonly associated with joint pain and stiffening. It re-emerged in 2005 and subsequently spread globally. Often found in the same tropical environments as dengue and Zika, chikungunya has also caused outbreaks in more temperate environments, such as southern Europe. There is only one virus known to cause chikungunya disease.

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How is it Acquired?

A single encounter with an infected mosquito is all that is needed to become sick with chikungunya. The mosquitos that spread chikungunya prefer to live in and around human residences, and bite throughout the day.

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Signs and Symptoms

Most people experience symptoms, which include:

  • Joint pains and stiffness
  • Body pains
  • Fever
  • Sometimes rash

Chikungunya is rarely fatal.

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Precautions to Take

Talk to a travel healthcare provider about how to avoid mosquito bites by the mosquitos that transmit chikungunya, dengue, and Zika. Some options include:

  • Staying in buildings that have window and door screens to help keep mosquitos out
  • Using air conditioning
  • Using mosquito repellent on bare skin
  • Treating clothes and shoes with mosquito repellent
  • Wearing long pants and long-sleeved shirts, socks, and shoes
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Dengue

Spread By Mosquitos Spread By Mosquitos

What Is It?

Dengue is a viral disease spread by mosquitos. Dengue affects as many as 390 million people globally every year and can cause severe, life-threatening illness. It occurs in warm, humid environments throughout the Americas, Africa, Asia, the Pacific Islands, and parts of Australia. There are four different viruses that cause dengue, all transmitted by the same mosquitos.

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How is it Acquired?

A single encounter with an infected mosquito is all that is needed to become sick with dengue. The mosquito that spreads dengue prefers to live in and around human residences in urbanized areas, and it bites throughout the day.

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Signs and Symptoms

Dengue is very similar to Zika and chikungunya. Symptoms of dengue include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Body aches
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Loss of appetite and nausea
  • Sometimes rash

In most cases, symptoms last five to seven days. Fatigue and depression may persist for weeks after the illness.

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Precautions to Take

Talk to a travel healthcare provider about how to avoid mosquito bites by the mosquitos that transmit chikungunya, dengue, and Zika. Some options include:

  • Staying in buildings that have window and door screens to help keep mosquitos out
  • Using air conditioning
  • Using mosquito repellent on bare skin
  • Treating clothes and shoes with mosquito repellent
  • Wearing long pants and long-sleeved shirts, socks, and shoes
Learn more

Hepatitis A

Spread By Food and Water Spread By Food and Water

What Is It?

Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by a virus. Hepatitis A virus is widespread and can be found in multiple regions of the world, including Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Symptoms of hepatitis A vary and depend on the age of the person infected. Children under age six may have mild disease or not have any symptoms at all. Older children and adults may have mild to severe symptoms, and recovery may be slow.

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How is it Acquired?

Contaminated food and water are common ways that hepatitis A is spread. Hepatitis A is spread by human waste containing the virus. Poor sanitary conditions, as well as poor personal hygiene, may lead to the spread of hepatitis A.

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Signs and Symptoms

Children under age six may have mild disease or no symptoms at all. Among older children and adults, symptoms may range from mild to severe. These may include:

  • Sudden onset of fever
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach pain
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes)
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Precautions to Take

Some hepatitis A precautions include:

  • Only drinking and using safe water for all your activities
  • Washing hands often with soap and water
  • Eating food that is cooked and served hot
  • Only eating fruits and vegetables that have been washed in clean water and that you peeled yourself
  • Speak with your healthcare provider about whether you should be vaccinated for
    hepatitis A
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Malaria

Spread By Mosquitos Spread By Mosquitos

What Is It?

Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite. Malaria is present in sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. Symptoms may range from absent or mild to severe disease and even death.

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How is it Acquired?

There are about 380 types of the mosquito that spread malaria, and about 60 of these types prefer biting humans. The mosquitos that spread malaria are most active between sunset and sunrise, and depending on the type, bite indoors or outdoors. Environmental conditions play a role in the spread of malaria because they affect the number of mosquitos present and their survival. In many places, the spread of malaria is seasonal, peaking during and just after the rainy season.

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Signs and Symptoms

Malaria is characterized by high fever. Other symptoms of malaria include:

  • Chills
  • Sweats
  • Headaches
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Body aches
  • A general feeling of discomfort
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Precautions to Take

Avoiding mosquito bites may prove difficult, especially between sunset and sunrise when the mosquitos that spread malaria are most active. Talk to your healthcare provider about ways to help minimize mosquito bites, such as:

  • Sleeping in a room with window/door screens
  • Using air conditioning
  • Using mosquito repellent on bare skin
  • Wearing long pants and long-sleeved shirts, socks, and shoes
  • Treating clothes and shoes with mosquito repellent
  • Using a mosquito net treated with mosquito repellent over the bed
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Typhoid Fever

Spread By Food and Water Spread By Food and Water

What Is It?

Typhoid fever is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid fever is found in most parts of the world (except industrialized regions); travelers are especially prone in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

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How is it Acquired?

Consuming contaminated food and water increases chance of infection. Another source of typhoid fever infection includes contaminated water that is used for drinking or washing/preparing food. Typhoid fever is more common in areas of the world where routine handwashing is not practiced and water treatment is not to standard.

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Signs and Symptoms

With typhoid fever, some people may only have a fever that comes on gradually but increases over the first week of illness. Others may have additional flu-like symptoms, including:

  • Headache
  • Inability to eat
  • Muscle pain
  • General feeling of discomfort
  • Mild confusion
  • Non-productive cough
  • Diarrhea • Constipation
  • Abdominal pain
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Precautions to Take

Some typhoid fever precautions include:

  • Only drinking and using safe water for all your activities
  • Washing hands often with soap and water
  • Eating food that is cooked and served hot
  • Only eating fruits and vegetables that have been washed in clean water and that you peeled yourself
Learn more

Zika

Spread By Mosquitos Spread By Mosquitos

What Is It?

Zika is a mosquito-borne viral disease found in warm, humid tropical, and subtropical environments. Zika was originally discovered in Africa, and emerged in 2015 as a significant health concern in Brazil. It has since spread throughout the Americas and beyond. Typically, Zika is a mild febrile illness, but it can cause serious complications, especially for pregnant women.

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How is it Acquired?

Zika virus is spread by the same mosquitos that transmit the dengue and chikungunya viruses. A single encounter with an infected mosquito is all that is needed to become sick with Zika. The mosquito that spreads Zika prefers to live in and around human residences and it bites throughout the day. Zika should be a concern for anyone traveling to regions with active transmission.

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Signs and Symptoms

While a person infected with Zika may not have any symptoms, those who do are most likely to experience:

  • Rash
  • Fever
  • Body pains

In pregnant women, Zika virus can infect the fetus and cause birth defects, developmental issues, and neurological problems.

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Precautions to Take

Some options include:

  • Staying in buildings that have window and door screens to help keep mosquitos out
  • Using air conditioning
  • Using mosquito repellent on bare skin
  • Treating clothes and shoes with mosquito repellent
  • Wearing long pants and long-sleeved shirts, socks, and shoes
Learn more

Travel health tips

Resist petting dogs during your travels! Rabies is spread by saliva, so even a friendly lick can be dangerous

Lots of us are “dog” people and can’t resist petting an adorable pup during our travels. But if you don’t know it, don’t pet it! Rabies is spread by saliva, so even a friendly lick can be dangerous. Take a picture of it instead.

Be cautious of a fresh fish catch! Certain areas have a higher risk of toxins that cause Ciguatera, a type of food poisoning

There’s nothing like the taste of a fresh catch, but certain fish (like red snapper, sea bass, and sturgeon) found in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific and Indian Oceans have a higher risk of toxins that can cause Ciguatera (sig-wah-TARE-ah), a type of food poisoning. Consider catch and release when fishing in those areas!

Lower your risk of catching an infectious disease by using mosquito repellent and wearing long sleeves and pants

Mosquitos can spread serious, even fatal infectious diseases. To lower your risk of catching one of these diseases, remember to use mosquito repellent on bare skin, and wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts, socks, and shoes. And, to help turn off mosquitos, turn on the air conditioning.

Beware of fruity drinks while traveling! Go for canned or bottled to lower the risk of diarrhea and other diseases

Fruity drinks may hit the spot when you’re at a tropical location but go for the canned or bottled kind. Local tap or well water (or ice made from either), along with fruit washed with the same local water, can put you at risk for traveler’s diarrhea and other diseases.

Travel Health Tips

Want more travel health tips?

We have a lot more helpful tips to help you stay healthier when you travel like:

  • How to choose a safer meal
  • What to know about spices when you travel
  • Which gets applied first: sunscreen or mosquito repellent
  • And much more!
Check out more tips now!

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This Site Does Not Provide Medical Advice. The content is intended for informational purposes only and should not be used to replace a discussion with a healthcare or travel health professional. Always seek the advice of your doctor with any questions you may have about your health. The content on this site has been created for U.S. residents only.

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