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AREAS AFFECTED: endemic key for areas affected

Areas of heightened disease reporting: LO Areas of heightened disease reporting heat key HI

Australia

Capital: Canberra

Population: 25,300,000

Local Infectious Diseases

Data Source For Areas Affected

The maps designate countries considered to be affected by a disease. Areas within countries may or may not be affected by a specific disease. Consult with a Travel Healthcare Provider or www.cdc.gov/travel about your specific itinerary prior to travel. Reporting activity data are provided by Sitata and derived from numerous sources, including official surveillance data and news reports. Reporting activity does not reflect current risk of infection with a disease. Not all areas report cases of disease; therefore, the absence of activity on the map does not indicate that a disease is not present. The relationship between the intensity of reporting activity and actual disease transmission is unknown and does not indicate a difference in risk. Maps do not reflect differential distribution of diseases within a country.

Dengue

Spread By Mosquitos Spread By Mosquitos

What Is It?

Dengue is a viral disease spread by mosquitos. Dengue affects as many as 390 million people globally every year and can cause severe, life-threatening illness. It occurs in warm, humid environments throughout the Americas, Africa, Asia, the Pacific Islands, and parts of Australia. There are four different viruses that cause dengue, all transmitted by the same mosquitos.

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How is it Acquired?

A single encounter with an infected mosquito is all that is needed to become sick with dengue. The mosquito that spreads dengue prefers to live in and around human residences in urbanized areas, and it bites throughout the day.

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Signs and Symptoms

Dengue is very similar to Zika and chikungunya. Symptoms of dengue include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Body aches
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Loss of appetite and nausea
  • Sometimes rash

In most cases, symptoms last five to seven days. Fatigue and depression may persist for weeks after the illness.

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Precautions to Take

Talk to a travel healthcare provider about how to avoid mosquito bites by the mosquitos that transmit chikungunya, dengue, and Zika. Some options include:

  • Staying in buildings that have window and door screens to help keep mosquitos out
  • Using air conditioning
  • Using mosquito repellent on bare skin
  • Treating clothes and shoes with mosquito repellent
  • Wearing long pants and long-sleeved shirts, socks, and shoes
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Hepatitis A

Spread By Food and Water Spread By Food and Water

What Is It?

Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by a virus. Hepatitis A virus is widespread and can be found in multiple regions of the world, including Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Symptoms of hepatitis A vary and depend on the age of the person infected. Children under age six may have mild disease or not have any symptoms at all. Older children and adults may have mild to severe symptoms, and recovery may be slow.

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How is it Acquired?

Contaminated food and water are common ways that hepatitis A is spread. Hepatitis A is spread by human waste containing the virus. Poor sanitary conditions, as well as poor personal hygiene, may lead to the spread of hepatitis A.

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Signs and Symptoms

Children under age six may have mild disease or no symptoms at all. Among older children and adults, symptoms may range from mild to severe. These may include:

  • Sudden onset of fever
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach pain
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes)
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Precautions to Take

Some hepatitis A precautions include:

  • Only drinking and using safe water for all your activities
  • Washing hands often with soap and water
  • Eating food that is cooked and served hot
  • Only eating fruits and vegetables that have been washed in clean water and that you peeled yourself
  • Speak with your healthcare provider about whether you should be vaccinated for
    hepatitis A
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Japanese Encephalitis

Spread By Mosquitos Spread By Mosquitos

What Is It?

Japanese encephalitis is caused by a virus that is spread by mosquitos. The Japanese encephalitis virus may be found in areas of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region. Although most Japanese encephalitis infections are mild (fever and headache) or have no symptoms, a small proportion develop clinical disease.

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How is it Acquired?

Japanese encephalitis is spread by mosquitos. The mosquitos that spread Japanese encephalitis are found in rural and suburban settings, are active at night, and bite people both indoors and outdoors. For most travelers, the likelihood of acquiring Japanese encephalitis is extremely low.

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Signs and Symptoms

Most Japanese encephalitis infections are mild (fever and headache) or cause no symptoms. A small proportion of people progress to severe Japanese encephalitis, which can include:

  • Rapid onset of high fever
  • Headache
  • Neck stiffness
  • Confusion
  • Coma
  • Seizures
  • Spastic paralysis
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Precautions to Take

Try to reduce the likelihood of mosquito bites. Some precautions include:

  • Sleeping in a room with window/door screens
  • Using air conditioning
  • Using mosquito repellent on bare skin
  • Treating clothes and shoes with mosquito repellent
  • Using a mosquito net treated with mosquito repellent over the bed
  • Wearing long pants and long-sleeved shirts, socks, and shoes
Learn more

Travel health tips

Resist petting dogs during your travels! Rabies is spread by saliva, so even a friendly lick can be dangerous

Lots of us are “dog” people and can’t resist petting an adorable pup during our travels. But if you don’t know it, don’t pet it! Rabies is spread by saliva, so even a friendly lick can be dangerous. Take a picture of it instead.

Be cautious of a fresh fish catch! Certain areas have a higher risk of toxins that cause Ciguatera, a type of food poisoning

There’s nothing like the taste of a fresh catch, but certain fish (like red snapper, sea bass, and sturgeon) found in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific and Indian Oceans have a higher risk of toxins that can cause Ciguatera (sig-wah-TARE-ah), a type of food poisoning. Consider catch and release when fishing in those areas!

Lower your risk of catching an infectious disease by using mosquito repellent and wearing long sleeves and pants

Mosquitos can spread serious, even fatal infectious diseases. To lower your risk of catching one of these diseases, remember to use mosquito repellent on bare skin, and wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts, socks, and shoes. And, to help turn off mosquitos, turn on the air conditioning.

Beware of fruity drinks while traveling! Go for canned or bottled to lower the risk of diarrhea and other diseases

Fruity drinks may hit the spot when you’re at a tropical location but go for the canned or bottled kind. Local tap or well water (or ice made from either), along with fruit washed with the same local water, can put you at risk for traveler’s diarrhea and other diseases.

Travel Health Tips

Want more travel health tips?

We have a lot more helpful tips to help you stay healthier when you travel like:

  • How to choose a safer meal
  • What to know about spices when you travel
  • Which gets applied first: sunscreen or mosquito repellent
  • And much more!
Check out more tips now!

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This Site Does Not Provide Medical Advice. The content is intended for informational purposes only and should not be used to replace a discussion with a healthcare or travel health professional. Always seek the advice of your doctor with any questions you may have about your health. The content on this site has been created for U.S. residents only.

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