Data Source For Areas Affected
The maps designate countries considered to be affected by a disease. Areas within countries may or may not be affected by a specific disease. Consult with a Travel Healthcare Provider or www.cdc.gov/travel about your specific itinerary prior to travel. Reporting activity data are provided by Sitata and derived from numerous sources, including official surveillance data and news reports. Reporting activity does not reflect current risk of infection with a disease. Not all areas report cases of disease; therefore, the absence of activity on the map does not indicate that a disease is not present. The relationship between the intensity of reporting activity and actual disease transmission is unknown and does not indicate a difference in risk. Maps do not reflect differential distribution of diseases within a country.
Chikungunya is an arthritic disease, commonly associated with joint pain and stiffening. It re-emerged in 2005 and subsequently spread globally. Often found in the same tropical environments as dengue and Zika, chikungunya has also caused outbreaks in more temperate environments, such as southern Europe. There is only one virus known to cause chikungunya disease.Learn more
A single encounter with an infected mosquito is all that is needed to become sick with chikungunya. The mosquitos that spread chikungunya prefer to live in and around human residences, and bite throughout the day.Learn more
Most people experience symptoms, which include:
Chikungunya is rarely fatal.Learn more
Talk to a travel healthcare provider about how to avoid mosquito bites by the mosquitos that transmit chikungunya, dengue, and Zika. Some options include:
Cholera is a diarrheal disease caused by a bacterial infection. People with cholera often have mild or no symptoms. In a subset of individuals, severe cholera may occur. In these severe cases, profuse diarrhea may occur that, without proper medical care, may lead to rapid dehydration, shock, or even death. With proper medical care, however, the likelihood of death is low.Learn more
Cholera is spread by eating or drinking food and/or water contaminated with the cholera bacteria. Cholera is most likely to be found and spread in places that have inadequate water treatment, poor sanitation, and inadequate hygiene. People can also get cholera by eating raw or undercooked shellfish, because cholera bacteria are naturally found in brackish (slightly salty) rivers and coastal waters.Learn more
Although cholera can be mild, it can progress to severe disease extremely quickly.
Cholera symptoms may appear within a few hours or up to five days after infection. Most people have symptoms within two to three days. In severe cases of cholera, profuse diarrhea may occur.
If untreated, severe cholera may lead to:
Some cholera precautions include:
Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by a virus. Hepatitis A virus is widespread and can be found in multiple regions of the world, including Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Symptoms of hepatitis A vary and depend on the age of the person infected. Children under age six may have mild disease or not have any symptoms at all. Older children and adults may have mild to severe symptoms, and recovery may be slow.Learn more
Contaminated food and water are common ways that hepatitis A is spread. Hepatitis A is spread by human waste containing the virus. Poor sanitary conditions, as well as poor personal hygiene, may lead to the spread of hepatitis A.Learn more
Children under age six may have mild disease or no symptoms at all. Among older children and adults, symptoms may range from mild to severe. These may include:
Some hepatitis A precautions include:
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite. Malaria is present in sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. Symptoms may range from absent or mild to severe disease and even death.Learn more
There are about 380 types of the mosquito that spread malaria, and about 60 of these types prefer biting humans. The mosquitos that spread malaria are most active between sunset and sunrise, and depending on the type, bite indoors or outdoors. Environmental conditions play a role in the spread of malaria because they affect the number of mosquitos present and their survival. In many places, the spread of malaria is seasonal, peaking during and just after the rainy season.Learn more
Malaria is characterized by high fever. Other symptoms of malaria include:
Avoiding mosquito bites may prove difficult, especially between sunset and sunrise when the mosquitos that spread malaria are most active. Talk to your healthcare provider about ways to help minimize mosquito bites, such as:
Typhoid fever is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid fever is found in most parts of the world (except industrialized regions); travelers are especially prone in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.Learn more
Consuming contaminated food and water increases chance of infection. Another source of typhoid fever infection includes contaminated water that is used for drinking or washing/preparing food. Typhoid fever is more common in areas of the world where routine handwashing is not practiced and water treatment is not to standard.Learn more
With typhoid fever, some people may only have a fever that comes on gradually but increases over the first week of illness. Others may have additional flu-like symptoms, including:
Some typhoid fever precautions include:
Yellow fever is caused by a virus. Yellow fever is present in tropical areas of the world, such as Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.
Some countries require yellow fever vaccination prior to entry. Check specific requirements for your destination
Mosquitos that carry the yellow fever virus are found in multiple environments throughout the day and night. The location and length of travel, vaccination status, and types of occupational and recreational activities one participates in also determine a person’s likelihood for mosquito exposure and getting yellow fever.Learn more
Signs and Symptoms While yellow fever symptoms can be mild, some people develop severe disease. For those who do, the signs and symptoms of yellow fever include:
Some options include:
Zika is a mosquito-borne viral disease found in warm, humid tropical, and subtropical environments. Zika was originally discovered in Africa, and emerged in 2015 as a significant health concern in Brazil. It has since spread throughout the Americas and beyond. Typically, Zika is a mild febrile illness, but it can cause serious complications, especially for pregnant women.Learn more
Zika virus is spread by the same mosquitos that transmit the dengue and chikungunya viruses. A single encounter with an infected mosquito is all that is needed to become sick with Zika. The mosquito that spreads Zika prefers to live in and around human residences and it bites throughout the day. Zika should be a concern for anyone traveling to regions with active transmission.Learn more
While a person infected with Zika may not have any symptoms, those who do are most likely to experience:
In pregnant women, Zika virus can infect the fetus and cause birth defects, developmental issues, and neurological problems.Learn more
Some options include:
Lots of us are “dog” people and can’t resist petting an adorable pup during our travels. But if you don’t know it, don’t pet it! Rabies is spread by saliva, so even a friendly lick can be dangerous. Take a picture of it instead.
There’s nothing like the taste of a fresh catch, but certain fish (like red snapper, sea bass, and sturgeon) found in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific and Indian Oceans have a higher risk of toxins that can cause Ciguatera (sig-wah-TARE-ah), a type of food poisoning. Consider catch and release when fishing in those areas!
Mosquitos can spread serious, even fatal infectious diseases. To lower your risk of catching one of these diseases, remember to use mosquito repellent on bare skin, and wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts, socks, and shoes. And, to help turn off mosquitos, turn on the air conditioning.
Fruity drinks may hit the spot when you’re at a tropical location but go for the canned or bottled kind. Local tap or well water (or ice made from either), along with fruit washed with the same local water, can put you at risk for traveler’s diarrhea and other diseases.
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This Site Does Not Provide Medical Advice. The content is intended for informational purposes only and should not be used to replace a discussion with a healthcare or travel health professional. Always seek the advice of your doctor with any questions you may have about your health. The content on this site has been created for U.S. residents only.
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